ITINERARY 2

Il Vicolo Verona Apartments

The church of San Fermo is one of the most interesting religious buildings of Verona, consisting of two churches connected and overlapping each other. Unique in the Romanesque style which blends harmoniously with the Gothic.
The lower church was built between 1065 and 1143, on the ruins of an ancient parish church of the fifth century, already dedicated to Saints Fermo and Rustico that in this place had been martyred. The upper church was built in the first decades of the fourteenth century by Franciscan monks, who left intact Romanesque lower church and gave the higher the current gothic style, enriching it through the centuries with the original keel ceiling, frescoes, cusps and numerous works art.
The lower part is made of tuff and belongs to the previous Romanesque church, the upper part is typically Gothic, with its wall covering in alternating bands of tuff and brick, which opens onto a large four-light window, surmounted by a three-light window set between two niches.
Complete the splendid overview of the Romanesque portal with its deep splay to multiple cords and the bronze doors, recently conducted by maestro Luciano Minguzzi, where you can see 24 panels that tell the story of the Saints Fermo and Rustico. Also note the statue of St. Francis, set in the lunette above the portal, and the ark of burial in which lie the remains of Aventine Fracastoro, placed on the left of the steps leading to the entrance.
The interior of the wide upper church has a Latin cross, has a single nave with five apses and side altars. Upon entering the eye is immediately fascinated by the fourteenth-century wooden ceiling of a ship's hull, adorned with a double gallery of arches on which are painted busts of the saints.
They kept also the frescoes of Pisanello and sculptures by Michele Sanmicheli.

Dating back to the first century AD, located at the end of Via Cappello, Lions Gate is a port from Roman times to the present day came in a wonderful state of preservation.
The current name is of popular origin and dates from the fifteenth century, in memory of a Roman tomb that was nearby and carrying two lions lying side by side, these lions are still visible behind the monument to Umberto I, located a hundred meters from the gate and continue towards the bridge Navi.
At the time of its construction it had a height of forty feet, with a square courtyard, double arches on the facades and galleries on the upper floors. The corners of the front exterior were flanked by two tall towers that raccordavano defensive walls, on which opened many windows. What today we can see the door, in a walled palace of the thirteenth century, is basically a vertical half of the side facing the interior of the city.
Thanks to extensive restoration and enhancement, two feet below street level in Via Leoni, are visible also the base of one of the two defensive towers, part of the side wall and fragments of the pavement of the courtyard.

A few dozen meters from the central Piazza delle Erbe and "Il Vicolo" Apartments Verona, stands the house where, according to tradition, lived Juliet Capulet.
An imposing wrought iron gate which bears the emblem of the Dal Cappello separates his hall, in which lovers of every place and age leave testimony of their love, from the public road. Pass it leads to a courtyard where there is the beautiful bronze statue of Juliet, Verona created by sculptor Nereo Costantini, and a plaque on which are some verses of Shakespeare's tragedy.
The house is a strict system of thirteenth-century medieval building, whose facade brickwork is softened by elegant trefoil windows. On the front is the famous balcony from which, according to tradition, Juliet looked out to talk with her beloved Romeo.
Arranged on different floors, offers a plausible reconstruction of the typical mansions of the fourteenth century, enhanced by a copious selection of medieval ceramics, from 'elegant frescoes that adorned the walls which stand in their austere simplicity, inlaid chests, brick chimneys , wooden stairs with railings and walkways.

A few minutes walk from "Il Vicolo" Residence Verona center. The square follows the system of the ancient Roman Forum and for centuries has been the center of political and economic life of the city. The toloneo, which is the central area, is still animated by a colorful market. Coming from Corso Mazzini, there are: the column of the market (1401), topped by a shrine Gothic and commissioned by Gian Galeazzo Visconti to expose the insignia of his lordship, went up stairs and pillars trade measures Verona, the sixteenth-century sedan or capital , marble canopy square, beneath which sat the mayor at the inauguration ceremony, the fountain of Madonna Verona, which has a bath and stem decorated with heads in relief and symbolic figures and is surmounted by the figure of Madonna Verona, Roman statue of the first sec. AD, the column of San Marco 1523, in white marble, on top of which was hoisted the lion symbol of the Republic of Venice (destroyed by the French, the current is 1886.) The square is surrounded by palaces and buildings that have marked the history of Verona: the "Domus Mercatorum" built in 1301 by Alberto I della Scala, the building has a portico supported by columns and pillars, large mullioned windows and battlements; 800 a restructuring it altered the original Romanesque and l ' building became the seat of the Chamber of Commerce, the Tower of Gardello, crenellated brick, built in 1370 by Cansignorio for keeping the oldest clock bell of Verona, the Palazzo Maffei, building of 1668 in late baroque style, has a terrace with a balustrade adorned with 6 statues of pagan gods (Hercules, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Apollo and Minerva), the Case Mazzanti (formerly Domus Blandorum Scala that, in the fourteenth, on the ground floor housed shops and private homes, while the upper floor was used as a granary), joined by the porch and the street facades of the square and Corso S. Anastasia were richly frescoed by Alberto Cavalli in the first half of '500, the Domus Nova and the side elevation of the neoclassical Palazzo della Ragione, in the midst of which is supported learning French (so named because of the presence, from the mid ' 700, a rib of a whale hanging from the ceiling) from which you enter in Piazza dei Signori. On the two squares stands the Torre dei Lamberti.

A few minutes walk from the Residenza Verona Centro "Il Vicolo" Coming away from the Costa come our right, the thirteenth-century Palazzo della Ragione and the Scala Palace Cansignorio. On the bottom of the square is the Scala palace of CanGrande and to the left of the Loggia Fra Giocondo, an elegant example of Renaissance architecture; the perimeter is closed from Palazzo della PietÓ and the baroque facade of Domus Nova, or House of the Judges, the residence of the PodestÓ and later home of the judges sent from Venice during the Venetian Republic.
At the center of the square stands the monument to Dante Alighieri, built in 1865 to celebrate the sixth anniversary of the birth of the great poet, who during his long exile from Florence was a guest at Verona.
It is a splendid marble statue, three meters high, supported by a pedestal in which Dante, turning his back on the street Fogge, his head turned slightly toward the Palace Cansignorio.
A small face on the right leads to the Courtyard of the Old Market, the ancient seat of the commercial activities and the city market. Here stands out in all its beauty, the scale of Reason, in red marble from Verona, who bore within the Court. An entrance hidden by its grandeur leads to the Lamberti tower whose top is accessible via winding stairs or elevator.
Returning to Piazza dei Signori, we find the Palace of Cansignorio, separate from that of Reason through archaeological excavations have brought to light flooring and Roman foundations. It was built in the second half of the fourteenth century on pre-existing early medieval dwellings and also was initially a tower-house with mighty defenses, enclosed central courtyard and a large walled garden. Crossing the sixteenth-century white marble portal leads to the Courtyard of the Court, in which there is the original holder of the Bombers and the entrance to the excavations Scala, an archaeological underground, where the remains of the ancient Roman roads and medieval buildings are the background for temporary exhibitions of the International Center of Photography.
Adjacent to the Palace of Cansignorio and almost concealed by the latter, in a corner of Piazza dei Signori you can see the small church of Santa Maria Antica, Roman place of worship especially loved by the Scala family, home on the portal of the stone sarcophagus I Can Grande della Scala, powerful son of the dynasty. Beside a wrought iron gate protects one of the most beautiful and evocative of the city, the Scaliger Tombs. It is a small private cemetery, monumental and spectacular, which houses the tombs of the first lords of Verona, together with the magnificent tombs of Can Grande, Mastino II and Cansignorio with their equestrian sculptures that rise into the sky in a sort of eternal tournament.
In front of the church of Santa Maria Antica, in the short side of Piazza dei Signori, stands the majestic medieval Palace of Can Grande. Built at the end of the thirteenth century is formed by an articulated complex of buildings that are developed on three sides around a rectangular courtyard, and leaves open the front facing St. Anastasia course. The facade on Piazza dei Signori is the most beautiful and majestic, adorned with a beautiful Renaissance portal reminiscent of Roman triumphal arches, built in 500 by San Micheli and surmounted by a winged lion, symbol of Venice, is formed by an arc to all sixth, adorned with four Ionic columns, coats of arms in intercolumniations and images of winged victories in the corners.

Begun in the twelfth century and several times raised, since 1464 is the highest tower in Verona. From the panoramic belfry, accessible by a long flight of stairs or using an elevator. you can enjoy a breathtaking view that branches off from the city center up to the surrounding mountains.
On the north-east of Piazza delle Erbe and Roman Palazzo della Ragione is dominated by an imposing tower, with its 84 meters of height seems to oversee a fatherly watch over the square and traders working for it. And 'Tower of the City, better known as Lamberti Tower in memory of the powerful family from Verona who had it built.
Its construction began in 1172 following the Romanesque style typical of the era and even today visible in the lower part, made of brick alternating with tuff. Over the centuries it has undergone various elevations, in a series of materials and styles always in tune with each other happily, until 1464 when, with the addition of an octagonal belfry above the windows three-mullioned windows has become the highest tower in Verona. A final intervention at the end of the eighteenth century to enter the clock still running and visible from Piazza Bra.
Inside already in 1295 had been placed both bells, rintoccando hours, regulating the pace of city life: the Rengo and Marangona. The Rengo was the largest and was used to call people to gather during the most important moments of city life or to give the alarm in case of danger for the city. The Marangona (from "joiner" in Veronese dialect means carpenter) was used to scan the working hours of the artisans of the city center and gave the alarm if there was a fire.

Scavi Scaligeri

The medieval Scaliger are one of the most picturesque sites in the city of Verona, a small private cemetery, monumental and spectacular, in which are preserved the tombs of Albert I, Alboin, Bartholomew, Mastiff Cangrande I and II, together with the great monuments funeral Cangrande I, Mastino II and Cansignorio, famous for their equestrian sculptures that rise into the sky like an endless tournament petrified. They are located just a few steps from Piazza delle Erbe and palaces Scala, on one side of the medieval church of Santa Maria Antica and almost opposite the house of Romeo.
Externally the site is protected by a massive fence Veronese stone topped by a fourteenth-century wrought-iron gate, formed by rings that encircle the heraldic symbol of the scale, supported by elegant marble columns topped by statues. The oldest tomb in the site dates back to 1277 and houses the remains of Mastino I, founder of the reigning dynasty. A little further on is the elegant coffin of his brother Albert I, finely figured on the long sides and flanks with images next to the deceased saints and marie, bas-reliefs and heraldic symbols.
Precious and elaborate is the tomb of Mastino II which is equipped with a small quadrangular enclosure, corner pillars on which rests statues of female figures depicting some of the Virtues.
The most majestic monument of the area is to Cansignorio: a grave with a hexagonal in which a dense forest of kiosks, spiers and statues give the appearance of elaborate Gothic reliquary. The rich sarcophagus, on which the statue of the deceased guarded by four angels, is decorated with bas-reliefs reproducing moments in the life of Christ. In addition rises a canopy, which is also hexagonal, on which stands the magnificent equestrian statue of Lord Scala, armed with a spear and wearing a knitted armor that leaves the face uncovered, in the attitude of the eternal challenge.
Outside the fence, over a door of the church of Santa Maria Antica, lies the magnificent tomb of Can Grande della Scala I, one of the major monuments of the Veronese sculpture of the fourteenth century. On the sarcophagus, located within a trefoil arch and supported by pairs of dogs bearing the heraldic symbol of the scale, it is surrounded by an Annunciation carved bas-reliefs depicting the cities conquered during his military campaigns, on the cover a statue that portrays him dying on a sheet by the astonishing verisimilitude. On the roof of the canopy is also present in this case an equestrian statue of the deceased, faithful reproduction of the original and now kept in the museum of Castelvecchio visible.

Via Sottoriva

The largest church in Verona and the most important Gothic monument of the city. Work on its construction began in XXIII century, was completed in 1471.
Visible frescoes depicting the '400 SS. Trinity and the arrival of the Dominicans in Verona, the lintel floor is decorated with sculptures of the simple life of Christ, flanked laterally by two niches, with St. Catherine and St. Anastasia.
Fine the marble friezes with putti and floral motifs on the sides of the portal and the two panels on the right pilaster, depicting St. Peter Martyr.
The interior of the basilica is divided into three naves joined with vaulted ceilings, naves separated by twelve columns of white marble and red Verona with Gothic capitals with floral motifs.
At the base of the first columns of the nave you can see the two famous fonts supported by the humpbacks: both reminiscent of the Veronese people humble and lowly, with the faith that spurs the generosity of the rich, and is said to bring good luck to touch the hump them.
The aisles of the church have a continuous row of large altars adorned with shovels, frescoes and sculptures from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century.
Among others, is to remember the altar Fregoso (XVI century) by Michele Sanmicheli, the altar of St. Thomas Aquinas (XV century), decorated with a piece of Girolamo dai Libri, depicting the Madonna and Child Enthroned and the saints; Chapel Horses, with numerous frescoes of the fourteenth century, including the beautiful Virgin Enthroned dell'Altichiero, the Pellegrini Chapel, decorated with terra-cotta reliefs depicting scenes from the life of Jesus, and finally, the monument Seregno (XV century) with decorations Nanni di Bartolo and frescoes by Michele Giambono.
The church contains the famous and spectacular fresco St. George and the Princess of Antonio Pisano (Pisanello said): maximum expression of the international Gothic Verona, visible in the Pellegrini Chapel.

Galleria d'Arte Moderna (Palazzo Forti)

Church is part of the Duomo complex, where Dante Alighieri in 1320 gave public reading his "Quaestio de aqua et earth".
It was built at the behest of Archdeacon in the Pacific 813, on the foundations of a previous early Christian church. Severely damaged during the disastrous earthquake that struck Verona in 1117 it was quickly rebuilt and rededicated in 1140. The vestments murals dating from the Carolingian period, but not small present single-light windows on the side walls, which during the twelfth replaced the large windows above. The fašade, with the typical cooked alternating with tuff, is partly covered by a loggia with columns and vaults of the fifteenth century.
Romanesque appearance of a single nave and wooden ceiling, the main chapel was built around 1573 by Bernardino Brugnoli, which is also the wooden altar that houses the sixteenth-century altarpiece by Happy Brusasorci of the Madonna and Child with Saints Stephen, Zeno , Giorgio and Elena.
Leaning against the wall is an interesting carved choir of the fifteenth century, of uncertain origin. On the right wall to note the chapel of the Holy Cross, with arch-century, the altar of the eighteenth century and the altarpiece by Pietro Antonio Rotari with the Madonna and Child with Saints Helena, Catherine and John of Nepomuk.
Next to the altar is placed the Triptych of polychrome stone of the Madonna and Child enthroned with Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, attributed to John of Rigino (XIII sec.).
On the opposite wall is the chapel of St. Nicholas, the altar sculpted by Giuseppe Antonio Schiavi in 1738 houses the contemporary altarpiece by Giovanni Salvaterra depicting the Redeemer with Saints Francis de Sales and Philip Blacks.

One of the oldest and most important ecclesiastical libraries of Europe. Its origins date back to the fifth century, as an emanation of "scriptorium," a center for the transcription of texts attached to the Schola sacerdotum, the corporation of the Canons of the Cathedral.
What is certain is that the book publishing workshop was active on 1 August of the year 517, specially given by a priest on the code we had just finished transcribing a precious manuscript on the life of St Martin and St Paul the Hermit, is preserved even today in the Chapter House.
This code, however, is the oldest text in it preserved. Its ancient salt led to the present day even the Institutes of Gaius, (the only text in the world of Roman law that reached almost complete) as well as an edition of St. Augustine's City of God, dating back to dell 'author.
The numerous manuscripts present confirms that even during the centuries that followed the workshop was very active, especially in the ninth century under the leadership of Archdeacon Pacific.
A versatile man in all fields of knowledge which gave considerable impetus to the scriptorium, which were composed in 218 volumes, an amazing figure for the time, when a hundred volumes were sufficient to form a royal library. In the two hundred Chapter began to assume the appearance of real library, with areas of conservation, study and consultation.
The Canons of the Cathedral now possessed such a number of volumes on the various branches of knowledge that they no longer felt the need to produce new ones, and his texts were provided to other churches, to encourage the formation of the clergy, and its halls became a A cultural center, as evidenced by the presence of Dante Alighieri (1320) and Francesco Petrarca (1345).
The library was active until the seventeenth century, when it was lost the oldest part of the collection that had been moved forward to her new place: in 1630 the Plague struck Verona, killing nearly two-thirds of the inhabitants, including the librarian who had hidden the precious manuscripts. They were found only in 1712, after a meticulous research carried out by Scipione Maffei, the interest aroused by the rediscovery took to build the new headquarters of the Chapter Library, which in 1781 was enlarged to accommodate donations seguitavano to reach.
After Napoleon (who carried off the various codes to replenish the National Library of Paris), the flood of 1882 and the bombing of 1945, the Chapter Library still has 1,200 manuscripts, 245 incunabula, 2500 cinquecentine, 2800 seicentine, 11,000 scrolls and over 72,000 volumes.

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